In a paper titled “Evolution of Image Sensor Architectures With Stacked Device Technologies” in IEEE TED (June 2022) Y. Oike writes:

The evolution of CMOS image sensors and their prospects using advanced imaging technologies are promising candidates to improve the quality of life. With the rapid advent of parallel analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and back-illuminated (BI) technology, CMOS image sensors currently dominate the market for digital cameras, and stacked CMOS image sensors continue to provide enhanced functionality and user experience in mobile devices. This article reviews the latest achievements in stacked image sensors with respect to the evolution of image sensor architecture for accelerating performance improvements, extending sensing capabilities, and integrating edge computing with various stacked device technologies.

Full article here:



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