Direct ToF Single-Photon Imaging
The June 2022 issue of IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices has an invited paper titled Direct Time-of-Flight Single-Photon Imaging by Istvan Gyongy et al. from University of Edinburgh and STMicroelectronics.
This is a comprehensive tutorial-style article on single-photon 3D imaging which includes a description of the image formation model starting from first principles and practical system design considerations such as photon budget and power requirements.
Abstract: This article provides a tutorial introduction to the direct Time-of-Flight (dToF) signal chain and typical artifacts introduced due to detector and processing electronic limitations. We outline the memory requirements of embedded histograms related to desired precision and detectability, which are often the limiting factor in the array resolution. A survey of integrated CMOS dToF arrays is provided highlighting future prospects to further scaling through process optimization or smart embedded processing.
Originally published at http://image-sensors-world.blogspot.com.